Smogon calculator. The premier Loomian Legacy Damage Calculator. A must-have t...

Percentages may be calculated from both fractions and decimal

Mar 30, 2017 · This API allows you to post a request which contains two Pokemon's movesets and a move (in the format given below), and it will run the damage calculation and return some information about how much damage the move will do. The code is basically just a modified, condensed version of the Pokemon Showdown! Damage Calculator which we all know and ... Use this savings goal calculator to identify how much money you can save by cutting down on everyday expenses. Painlessly find extra money in your budget. A saving calculator demonstrates the power of saving a small amount of money to reach...Oct 19, 2022. #1. Please limit discussion to battle mechanics only! New Mechanics in Scarlet and Violet. Terastal. Terastallizing into one of the user's original types makes that STAB 2x ( Nails) Soak fails against a Terastallized Pokemon ( Theorymon) Transform does not copy the target's Tera Type, and if the user is Terastallized it keeps …Technician. This Pokemon's moves of 60 power or less have their power multiplied by 1.5, including Struggle. This effect comes after a move's effect changes its own power. (Inadequate description?Online SMOG calculator which you can use to calculate the readability index for readability level of your own documents or texts from a website. Using the …EVs. 252 HP. 4 SpA. 252 Spe. Galarian Rapidash is a scary setup sweeper thanks to its Speed, bulk, and STAB Stored Power. It is able to consistently set up in front of passive defensive Pokemon like Miltank, Altaria, and Clefairy. It can also switch into some wallbreakers, like Sawk and Poliwrath Choice-locked into a Fighting-type attack.Smogon Dev Team & the @smogon/calc Maintainers & Contributors for the sauce, pre & pkmn.cc for keeping the Smogon sets hot, fresh & downloadable, Austin for the endorsement & support, Honko for the O.G damage calculator, Zarel & the Showdown Staff & Contributors for this would literally be nothing without them,To calculate rate per 1,000, place the ratio you know on one side of an equation, and place x/1,000 on the other side of the equation. Then, use algebra to solve for “x.” If you do not have a ratio to start with, you need to create a ratio.If you are currently looking at smogon/damage-calc and not a fork, this is the official repository for the Pokémon Showdown! damage calculator: https://calc.pokemonshowdown.com. This repository houses both the package implementing the core damage formula mechanics in each generation ( @smogon/calc) as well as logic and markup for the official UI. Jan 23, 2017 · Correct output: (38+148+224)– (46+176+264) = 410–486 (guaranteed OHKO) *it also seems to calculate it as 40,40,40 instead of 20,40,60. This would cause problems even if Multiscale did work correctly, as the first hit would need to be half of a 20 BP hit: not half of a 40 BP hit. Parental Bond: Correct. Pokémon Natures. Rather than just being a superficial personality, Natures actually affect the growth of a Pokémon. Each nature increases one of its stats by 10% and decreases one by 10% (by the time it reaches level 100). Five natures increase and decrease the same stat and therefore have no effect.Basic Mechanics. Every Pokémon can have a maximum of 510 EVs in total and a maximum of 252 EVs per stat. At level 100, EVs are worked with in multiples of 4, as a Pokémon gains a 1 point stat increase for every 4 EVs that are added. At level 50, EVs are worked with in multiples of 8, as a Pokémon gains a 1 point stat increase for every 8 EVs ...Mar 30, 2017 · This API allows you to post a request which contains two Pokemon's movesets and a move (in the format given below), and it will run the damage calculation and return some information about how much damage the move will do. The code is basically just a modified, condensed version of the Pokemon Showdown! Damage Calculator which we all know and ... IMPORTANT: THE CALC IS CURRENTLY NOT UP TO DATE. READ THIS POST FOR INFORMATION.. Random Battles Calc by LegoFigure11 & Wigglytuff.Special thanks to cant say and LegoFigure11 for the base version of this calculator and to the Pokemon Showdown! Random Battles Auth for their assistance. Navigate to alternate and Mega …However, the only resource I really use is smogon is to check movesets. I dont check damage calc or EVs. I usually stick to what I want to do (spam a move) versus whats the best option (eg doubling out) I watch a lot of Pokeaim's videos, he does a great job at knowing sets and using the damage calc to predict/understand the matchup.Hydreigon is a devastatingly powerful wallbreaker in UU due to its incredible Special Attack, great movepool, and excellent STAB combination. Its Choice Specs set has no reliable switch-ins apart from Primarina and Chansey, ripping apart common defensive staples like Amoonguss, Scizor, and Hippowdon. Hydreigon also can utilize a Choice Scarf ...Overview. Slaking seems like an appealing option at first glance due to its sky-high Attack stat, great bulk, and expansive movepool. Unfortunately, any sort of viability Slaking could have is completely undermined by Truant, making it immobile every other turn and hopeless against users of Protect and Substitute.By Ezmeralda Lee A graphing calculator is necessary for many different kinds of math. Not only does it do math much faster than almost any person, but it is also capable of performing mathematical functions that no person can calculate beca...Loomian damage calculator lets you input the stats and moves of their Loomians and the stats and type of their opponents, and a damage calculator can estimate how much damage each Loomian’s attacks will deal. This can help you to plan your battle strategy and choose the most effective moves and Loomian combinations to defeat your opponents.None Electric Grassy Misty Psychic. None Sun Rain Sand Hail. Harsh Sun Heavy Rain Strong Winds. Aura Break Fairy Aura Dark Aura. Vessel of Ruin Sword of Ruin Tablets of Ruin Beads of Ruin. Gravity.Pokémon Damage Calculator. VGC 2020 calculator by Jake White ( @squirrelboyVGC ). This calculator is currently being optimized for Sword & Shield + Crown Tundra. We're under construction adding new sets! You'll have more luck submitting bug/feature reports/requests through Github than through Twitter :) Also check out my game.This guide has been created as a resource to help battlers understand the many magic numbers that define the game and also to give shortcuts in order to efficiently build teams and spread EVs. Using this guide in tandem with other resources including damage calculators and the Smogon analyses will help the player to become a stronger team ...Pokémon Damage Calculator RBY GSC ADV DPP B/W X/Y S/M S/S S/V 48th 100% One vs One One vs All All vs One Random Battles Abomasnow's Moves (select one to show detailed results) Blizzard 46.4 - 54.8% Giga Drain 15.6 - 18.7% (7.8 - 9.3% recovered) Leech Seed 0 - 0% Aurora Veil 0 - 0% Abomasnow's Moves (select one to show detailed results) Edit 3: Some valuable points raised in the comments. Due to me doing calcs at level 100 due to the default in smogon calculator, the 4 EVs in speed are actually unnecessary. You also need 220 hp EVs to survive final gambit from annihilape. Should you wish to, you could take 4 from speed and def, and 8 from spd to hit that 220 EV threshold.This Pokemon does not take recoil damage besides Struggle/Life Orb/crash damage.Example, it looks like this now: (other examples include Encounter Type Mismatch) Identify which Method is appropriate. What is important is: (More details at the bottom of the page under Note 1 ) Find PID using RNG Reporter. Open RNG Reporter. Select the chosen Method. Indicate ID and SID and check Shiny Only, if the final result wanted is shiny.RBY GSC ADV DPP B/W X/Y S/M S/S S/V Select the output notation. 48th 100% Select the calculator's mode of function. One vs One One vs All All vs One Random Battles Pokémon 1's Moves (select one to show detailed results)Gostaríamos de exibir a descriçãoaqui, mas o site que você está não nos permite.Smogon Dev Team & the @smogon/calc Maintainers & Contributors for the sauce, pre & pkmn.cc for keeping the Smogon sets hot, fresh & downloadable, Austin for the endorsement & support, Honko for the O.G damage calculator, Zarel & the Showdown Staff & Contributors for this would literally be nothing without them, RBY GSC ADV DPP B/W X/Y S/M S/S S/V Select the output notation. 48th 100% Select the calculator's mode of function. One vs One One vs All All vs One Random Battles Pokémon 1's Moves (select one to show detailed results)A Pokémon type calculator to show strengths/weaknesses of different type combinations. Pokémon Type Calculator. Offense Defense Pokédex More. Choose Mode. Solo Team. Choose First Type. Normal Fighting Flying Poison Ground Rock Bug Ghost Steel Fire Water Grass Electric Psychic Ice Dragon Dark Fairy.Showdex is an extension for Pokémon Showdown that integrates the Damage Calculator directly into Showdown and automatically syncs during battles, so you can spend less time configuring and more time stratting. You can easily check calcs at a glance and run 10× the number of calcs you traditionally could. We’ve also packed it with tons of ...The damage calculator shows Technician as working on Pursuit while its power is doubled from the opponent switching out, but that's not the case in actual battle. 252+ Atk Technician Scizor-Mega switching boosted Pursuit (80 BP) vs. 0 HP / 0 Def Jirachi: 320-378 (93.8 - 110.8%) -- 62.5% chance to OHKO.I don't know how the calculator computes the KO chances in this case or why it always show them in multiples of 1/16 (which explains why the smallest proba is 6.3% (1/16) and not 1/16^4). The calculator doesn't give the exact chances anyway (but it says "approx" so I guess they are aware that the method used is an approximation).Jan 23, 2017 · Correct output: (38+148+224)– (46+176+264) = 410–486 (guaranteed OHKO) *it also seems to calculate it as 40,40,40 instead of 20,40,60. This would cause problems even if Multiscale did work correctly, as the first hit would need to be half of a 20 BP hit: not half of a 40 BP hit. Parental Bond: Correct. RBY GSC ADV DPP B/W X/Y S/M S/S S/V Select the output notation. 48th 100% Select the calculator's mode of function. One vs One One vs All All vs One Random Battles Pokémon 1's Moves (select one to show detailed results)RBY GSC ADV DPP B/W X/Y S/M S/S S/V Select the output notation. 48th 100% Select the calculator's mode of function. One vs One One vs All All vs One Random Battles Pokémon 1's Moves (select one to show detailed results)Marriland’s Pokémon Team Builder is a tool that you can use to check the weaknesses and resistances of your entire team at a glance to spot any glaring holes in your team’s defensive coverage. It can be used both for casual or competitive purposes. It supports Pokémon Scarlet & Violet as well as older generations.. You can input up to 6 Pokémon for your …This is contrary to what the Damage Calculator says will happen, as the following calculations show: 252 Atk Sharpness Gallade Psycho Cut vs. 252 HP / 252+ Def Tera Ghost Umbreon: 58-70 ( 28.7 - 34.6%) -- 99.9% chance to 4HKO after Leftovers recovery. 252 Atk Sharpness Tera Water Gallade Psycho Cut vs. 252 HP / 252+ Def Tera Ghost Umbreon: 39 ...Everyone is Pokémon Pokémon (EiPP) is hosting its 8th battle, and looking for new players. EiPP is a massive Pokémon Free-For-All social game that takes place over Discord. Put your Pokémon and diplomacy skills to the test and see if you can be one of the last Pokémon standing to win the $50 prize. — bri'ish loser on Oct 6, 2023 Permalink. Access to a calculator that is capable of doing Hexadecimal and Binary conversions. Both the standard Windows and Macintosh calculators will do, but the body of this guide will assume that you are using the Windows Calculator. The Deduction Process Find your IVs. You will need to discover the exact IVs of your shiny Pokemon first.RBY GSC ADV DPP B/W X/Y S/M S/S S/V Select the output notation. 48th 100% Select the calculator's mode of function. One vs One One vs All All vs One Random Battles Pokémon 1's Moves (select one to show detailed results)Take a moment to read the Introduction to Smogon for a run-down on everything Smogon, and make sure you take some time to read the global rules. The moderators of this forum are Enigami, FriendOfMrGolem120, phoopes ... Pokemon Showdown's Damage calculator is unfortunately a poor fit for calculating damage, …Click the "Calculate Damage" button to initiate the damage calculation process. The calculator will analyze the provided inputs and determine the expected damage output. The calculated damage result will be displayed in the "Result" section. You can find the estimated amount of damage the move will inflict on the target Pokemon. Type Coverage Calculator - Used to determine the effectiveness of a certain moveset against every possible Pokemon. Very useful to check if your sweeper can effectively break through the metagame or to compare the type effectiveness of different potential move combinations. Be careful of abilities though (eg.Your question doesn't state which game, but Smogon university has a DPP/Emerald Secret ID calculator. It's super confusing and totally not worth doing in my opinion, but you can use your Secret ID to breed or capture Pokemon and determines the shininess of Pokemon without a cheating device using certain methods and calculators …Pokémon Damage Calculator. Damage calculator for all generations of Pokémon battling. If you are currently looking at smogon/damage-calc and not a fork, this is the official repository for the Pokémon Showdown! damage calculator: https://calc.pokemonshowdown.com. This repository houses both the package implementing the core damage formula ...Of course the Battle Helper shortens these steps extremely and allows you to get a concrete plan from the calcs even with a low timer, which was a big advantage for me. In addition, this calc function also strengthens one of the soft skills of Pokemon playing, which I think is very underestimated, the so-called "Head Calcs".For these metagames, use the good old Marble Palace Damage Calculator. It's not quite as convenient, but it seems to be mostly accurate. Also, every Rental Pokemon in the OP will have their raw stats on Pokemon Stadium in this thread, so that part will be easy. We'll be covering all the formats at some point.Whether you’re planning a road trip or flying to a different city, it’s helpful to calculate the distance between two cities. Here are some ways to get the information you’re looking for.Basic Mechanics. Every Pokémon can have a maximum of 510 EVs in total and a maximum of 252 EVs per stat. At level 100, EVs are worked with in multiples of 4, as a Pokémon gains a 1 point stat increase for every 4 EVs that are added. At level 50, EVs are worked with in multiples of 8, as a Pokémon gains a 1 point stat increase for every 8 EVs ...Jan 10, 2023 · Another pair of options at the top of the screen lets players choose how they want their damage calculations displayed. The default setting “100%” will show calculations as a percentage of the opponent’s Hit Points. Meanwhile, “48th” shows damage as a fraction of 48. This is helpful when calculating for a Pokémon game on cartridge ... Hits twice. 30% chance to make the target flinch. Lowers the user's Attack and Defense by 1. 10% chance to paralyze the target. Paralyzes the target. Holder's moves are protected from adverse contact effects, except Pickpocket. This Pokemon's punch-based attacks have 1.2x power. Sucker Punch is not boosted.RBY GSC ADV DPP B/W X/Y S/M S/S S/V Select the output notation. 48th 100% Select the calculator's mode of function. One vs One One vs All All vs One Random Battles Pokémon 1's Moves (select one to show detailed results)Jan 10, 2023 · Another pair of options at the top of the screen lets players choose how they want their damage calculations displayed. The default setting “100%” will show calculations as a percentage of the opponent’s Hit Points. Meanwhile, “48th” shows damage as a fraction of 48. This is helpful when calculating for a Pokémon game on cartridge ... Pokemon Damage Calculator for Scarlet and Violet Teal Mask Smogon Gen 9 OU, VGC 2023 & Sword and Shield. Stay ahead of the game with the Pikalytics damage calculator! Pokémon battle calculator. Latest version: 0.8.0, last published: 7 hours ago. Start using @smogon/calc in your project by running `npm i @smogon/calc`. There are 2 other …#1 This is mainly to Metalkid, but others may comment. You may know that by using Rare Candies, you can calculate the IV's of your Pokémon. What you may not know is that you can calulate the EV's of your Pokémon by using the six EV-reducing berries.Pokémon Showdown is a Pokémon battle simulator that you can play immediately in your browser with no downloads! Try it out! Playable in your browser Open source Alternative client download Automated tournaments Multiple chat channels Ladders for all major formats as well as numerous other metagames Teambuilder with importing/exporting functionalityTo help narrow down your Pokémon's IVs even quicker, head to the main Battle Tower, where a man will tell you several different phrases that indicate your Pokémon's best IV(s), as well as the overall total of its IVs. Many IV calculators allow you to use these phrases, so this is extremely helpful in determining IVs.The full type chart here displays the strengths and weaknesses of each type. Look down the left hand side for the attacking type, then move across to see how effective it is against each Pokémon type. Note: this chart is for games from 2013 onwards - Pokémon X/Y, OR/AS, Pokémon GO and Sun/Moon. Type charts for older games have some minor ...RBY GSC ADV DPP B/W X/Y S/M S/S S/V Select the output notation. 48th 100% Select the calculator's mode of function. One vs One One vs All All vs One Random Battles Pokémon 1's Moves (select one to show detailed results)Step 1: Type the desired Pokemon's species name in "Pokemon Species'. [Optional]: There's a forme option, which you need to fill if the species has different formes. Step 2: Enter the characteristic, nature, etc. Then, fill the Level, EVs, and IVs. Step 3: Under the "CALCULATED STATS - MIN / MAX", there's the calculate stats option.This Pokemon is immune to Ground; Gravity/Ingrain/Smack Down/Iron Ball nullify it. Nature. Bold. EVs. 252 HP. 252 Def. 4 SpD. Galarian Weezing's immense physical bulk and good defensive typing make it a good check to common threats such as Mimikyu, Golisopod, and Heracross. Levitate additionally gives Weezing the ability to effectively deal ...Pokémon Damage Calculator. Pokémon Damage Calculator. RBY GSC ADV DPP B/W X/Y S/M S/S S/V 48th 100% One vs One One vs All All vs One Random Battles.Welcome to Smogon! Take a moment to read the Introduction to Smogon for a run-down on everything Smogon, and make sure you take some time to read the global rules. Home. Forums. Content Creation. ... We showed the calc vs sylveon which said the max was 62% and I did 75%. We brainstormed a few things and tried it vs a shell armor mon to see if ...I don't know how the calculator computes the KO chances in this case or why it always show them in multiples of 1/16 (which explains why the smallest proba is 6.3% (1/16) and not 1/16^4). The calculator doesn't give the exact chances anyway (but it says "approx" so I guess they are aware that the method used is an approximation).Pokémon Damage Calculator. Pokémon Damage Calculator. RBY GSC ADV DPP B/W X/Y S/M S/S S/V 48th 100% One vs One Random Battles. Abra's Moves (select one to show detailed results) Psychic 18.9 - 22.5%. Seismic Toss 39.5 - 39.5%. Reflect 0 - 0%. Thunder Wave 0 - 0%. Abra's Moves (select one to show detailed results)Jul 31, 2023 · Showdex is an extension for Pokémon Showdown that integrates the Damage Calculator directly into Showdown and automatically syncs during battles, so you can spend less time configuring and more time stratting. You can easily check calcs at a glance and run 10× the number of calcs you traditionally could. We’ve also packed it with tons of ... This is contrary to what the Damage Calculator says will happen, as the following calculations show: 252 Atk Sharpness Gallade Psycho Cut vs. 252 HP / 252+ Def Tera Ghost Umbreon: 58-70 ( 28.7 - 34.6%) -- 99.9% chance to 4HKO after Leftovers recovery. 252 Atk Sharpness Tera Water Gallade Psycho Cut vs. 252 HP / 252+ Def Tera Ghost Umbreon: 39 ...I don't know how the calculator computes the KO chances in this case or why it always show them in multiples of 1/16 (which explains why the smallest proba is 6.3% (1/16) and not 1/16^4). The calculator doesn't give the exact chances anyway (but it says "approx" so I guess they are aware that the method used is an approximation).Check the lists of Not Bugs in the 2nd post of this thread. Save a replay of the battle (use the button or the "/savereplay" command). If it's a visual bug, also take a screenshot to include in your post. Although not required, cartridge footage, such as a YouTube or Twitter video, can be helpful to better understand the bug you're reporting.Pokémon Radical Red Damage Calculator Select the generation. Select the output notation. 48th 100% Select the calculator's mode of function. One vs One Normal Mode Hardcore Mode Random BattlesWe all know that Ursaluna is the most anticipated mon in the upcoming Gen 9 OU. Its Earthquake can OHKO Toxapex and whatnot. But the biggest scary aspect of Ursaluna is its STAB Facade boosted by Guts (and its wallbreaking prowess). This post will only address some of the physical tank/walls of OU. The calcs are posted below.I don't know how the calculator computes the KO chances in this case or why it always show them in multiples of 1/16 (which explains why the smallest proba is 6.3% (1/16) and not 1/16^4). The calculator doesn't give the exact chances anyway (but it says "approx" so I guess they are aware that the method used is an approximation).Loomian damage calculator lets you input the stats and moves of their Loomians and the stats and type of their opponents, and a damage calculator can estimate how much damage each Loomian’s attacks will deal. This can help you to plan your battle strategy and choose the most effective moves and Loomian combinations to defeat your opponents.RBY GSC ADV DPP B/W X/Y S/M S/S S/V Select the output notation. 48th 100% Select the calculator's mode of function. One vs One One vs All All vs One Random Battles Pokémon 1's Moves (select one to show detailed results)This API allows you to post a request which contains two Pokemon's movesets and a move (in the format given below), and it will run the damage calculation and return some information about how much damage the move will do. The code is basically just a modified, condensed version of the Pokemon Showdown! Damage Calculator which we all know and ...Yes, you are. It's the same way with IV's as it is with EV's. The stat formula is Level* (2*Base+IV+EV/4)/100 with some other stuff in it (the other stuff does not include IV's or EV's). As you can see, the IV's and the EV's are always related by a factor of 4; that is that four EV's ALWAYS equals one IV.Damage calculator for all generations of Pokémon battling. If you are currently looking at smogon/damage-calc and not a fork, this is the official repository for the Pokémon Showdown! damage calculator: https://calc.pokemonshowdown.com. This repository houses both the package implementing the core damage formula mechanics in each generation ...Sep 2, 2022 · Automatically syncs the calculator with the battle and downloads fresh Smogon sets, updating each Pokemon’s forme, level, HP, types, status, ability, nature, item, moveset, spread, and boosts, as well as the field conditions like screens, weather, and terrain at the end of each turn. May 4, 2020 · Check the lists of Not Bugs in the 2nd post of this thread. Save a replay of the battle (use the button or the "/savereplay" command). If it's a visual bug, also take a screenshot to include in your post. Although not required, cartridge footage, such as a YouTube or Twitter video, can be helpful to better understand the bug you're reporting. Jan 23, 2017 · Here's a specific quote from the thread with more detail. SadisticMystic said: The damage calculator is implementing Metronome as no boost for the first use, then x1.1, then x1.32 (applying both a 1.1 and a 1.2 boost), then x1.716 (all of 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3), then x2.4024 (tacking on a 1.4 as well). Battle source, on the other hand, simply adds ... All-out Attacker. Max 102 power at maximum Happiness. User is hurt by 50% of its max HP if it misses. Hits first. First turn out only. 100% flinch chance. 10% chance to freeze the target. Usually goes first. If held by a Lopunny, this item allows it to Mega Evolve in battle. This Pokemon cannot be paralyzed.Percentages may be calculated from both fractions and decimals. While there are numerous steps involved in calculating a percentage, it can be simplified a bit. Multiplication is used if you’re working with a decimal, and division is used t...Pokémon Radical Red Damage Calculator Select the generation. Select the output notation. 48th 100% Select the calculator's mode of function. One vs One Normal Mode Hardcore Mode Random BattlesWelcome to Smogon! Take a moment to read the Introduction to Smogon for a run-down on everything Smogon, and make sure you take some time to read the global rules. Home. ... I'll leave it to you to calculate some example stats (or look on Serebii, who has a very helpful table for Level 50 and 100 at least for the new Pokémon). The main …RBY GSC ADV DPP B/W X/Y S/M S/S S/V Select the output notation. 48th 100% Select the calculator's mode of function. One vs One One vs All All vs One Random Battles Pokémon 1's Moves (select one to show detailed results) Overview. Through the combination of an excellent defensive typing, fantastic bulk, and good movepool, Corviknight serves as one of the best defensive pivots in the tier, being able to check troublesome offensive threats such as Landorus-T, Rillaboom, and Weavile. Furthermore, a neutrality to Stealth Rock and the ability to switch in favorably .... Everyone is Pokémon Pokémon (EiPP) is hosting its 8th battle, aIf you are currently looking at smogon/damage-calc and not\na f If you’re unemployed, you may be eligible for benefits. **Unemployment benefits come under the jurisdiction of individual states.** Each state has its own set of regulations for calculating benefits and determining eligibility. However, sim... Overview. Magnezone's near-exclusive access to Mag @smogon/calc comes packaged with all of the data required for damage calculation - by default, it exposes this via its Generations object from @smogon/calc/data.As a shortcut, the Generation argument required by calculate, Pokemon, Move can instead simply be the generation number (eg.5), and it will handle getting that generations Generation object …Pokémon Damage Calculator. VGC 2020 calculator by Jake White ( @squirrelboyVGC ). This calculator is currently being optimized for Sword & Shield + Crown Tundra. We're under construction adding new sets! You'll have more luck submitting bug/feature reports/requests through Github than through Twitter :) Also check out my game. RBY GSC ADV DPP B/W X/Y S/M S/S S/V Select the output n...

Continue Reading